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Understanding the Fundamental Components of Academic Research


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There exist certain matters anyone who is about to start a research project must  know. At first, it seems that this is a very difficult task, but one should be aware of this. A research is essentially a kind of academic writing that has a major role in the field of science. Consequently, once one gets familiar with the proper courses to follow, he, or she will start feeling comfortable about starting a research within any given framework. Thus, in this essay I will present how to achieve the following: 1- Select a research topic and elaborate research questions and logically correlate them to the study design 2- Understand how to Develop accurate and reasonable methods for data collection and analysis 3- Be aware of the various methods for data collection 4- Be reliable to interpret and analysis and the Findings with Appropriate Harsh 
  To begin with, A mistake many researchers make is opting for a topic that is too general. However, it is principally best to select an issue, which one has always been interested in. That way, one will be enthusiastic and motivated to learn more about the given issue. Also, always keep in mind to be specific when choosing a topic. Paul D. Leedy and Jeanne Ellis Ormrod state in their book Practical Research -planning and Design-, “Research is a systematic process of collecting, analysing, and interpreting information—data— in order to increase our understanding of a phenomenon about which we are interested or concerned.”. Eventually, this leads the researcher to get clear about the purpose and framework of the research and help to develop research questions that are logically linked to the study design also define the research. Therefore, the research questions must be focused, well-articulated and can be answered. Finally, following the scientific method in research is mandatory. Hence, Richard Feynman sums up the scientific method and states, “In general we look for a new law by the following process. First, we guess it. Then we compute the consequences of the guess to see what would be implied if this law that we guessed is right. Then we compare the result of the computation to nature, with experiment or experience, compare it directly with observation, to see if it works. If it disagrees with experiment it is wrong. In that simple statement is the key to science. It does not make any difference how beautiful your guess is. It does not make any difference how smart you are, who made the guess, or what his name is—if it disagrees with experiment it is wrong”.
Second, there is still an infinite number of unanswered questions in any field, and a researcher’s duty is to find answers to these questions. The goal of any researcher is to find the variables of the outcome that must be investigated and find how one variable affects other variables. And be able to know how to decide what variables should  include in the research. It is necessary to know that a way of investigation shoulds be reliable to answer the following to be Justified one: 1- Is a suitable method of investigation for the outcome in question? 2- To what extent is this mode accurate when it comes to results? 3- To what extent is this mode efficient?  
Third, the choice of the many methods for data collection depends on the variables to be measured, the source and the resources available. In various cases, there exists a natural way to collect variables. The methods can be different depending on the nature of the investigation. For example, what is an accurate methodology for a large-scale research, may be inaccurate in a small-scale research. The literature available is also an important factor for the choice and design of methods. stemming from this idea of research methodology. The quality and utility of monitoring fundamentally relies on our ability to collect and analyse data. Monitoring and evaluation plans, needs assessments, baseline surveys and situational analyses are all located within a project cycle and require high-quality data to inform evidence-based decision-making and systemic learning. To achieve this, it is useful to reflect on research practices, which in a monitoring, evaluation, accountability and learning context refers to the systematic investigations. Again, a researcher must follow ethical guidelines and consider doing no harm to the research participants whatsoever. This can be achieved by being familiar with existing universal guidelines for ethical research, according to British Educational Research Association (BERA) “The British Educational Research Association (BERA) believes that educational researchers should operate within an ethic of respect for any persons – including themselves – involved in or touched by the research they are undertaking. Individuals should be treated fairly, sensitively, and with dignity and freedom from prejudice, in recognition of both their rights and of differences arising from age, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, class, nationality, cultural identity, partnership status, faith, disability, political belief or any other significant characteristic.”.
To wrap up, the final phase of any research is interpreting the results, drawing conclusions and giving recommendations. A researcher should review and sum up the findings and try to understand how they answered the research questions. Find if the research methodology and findings answered the research questions and supported the research hypotheses with considering the limitations of our data. It is also important that conclusions and recommendations must be based on the findings rather than one’s own opinions and feelings. Bibliography: “Doing you research project Fifth edition” Judith Bell “Practical Research -planning and Design- “Paul D. Leedy and Jeanne Ellis Ormrod “Introduction to Research in Education” Donald Ary et al “Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research” British Educational Research Association (BERA)


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Marouane El Masmoudi
I, Marouane El Masmoudi, am 22 years old, a graduate in linguistics. I currently live in Sala Aljadida, a town on the peripherals of Rabat, Morocco. I am a freshman student at a master degree in Education at the British university of Rabat. Besides writing poetry and short stories in both Arabic and English, I am also a photographer.

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